At FundedNext, we prioritize traders’ skill over the use of advanced technology such as EAs and trading bots. However, there has been an increase in their usage recently. It’s important to note that these tools do not accurately reflect a trader’s success, and we do not condone using them to manipulate trades with a prop firm’s funds.
This post aims to inform traders of the risks associated with high-frequency trading and how they can negatively impact their trading journey.
What is HFT, or High-Frequency Trading?
High-frequency trading, or HFT for short, is a method of buying and selling financial assets such as forex, stocks, bonds, and other trades using advanced computer programs. These programs can process and analyze large amounts of data in a very short amount of time, allowing traders to make quick decisions and execute trades at lightning speeds. The goal of HFT is to be faster than the competition and make profits from small differences in the prices of assets. It is a highly technical and complex process that requires specialized knowledge and powerful technology.
HFT became more prevalent when exchanges began offering incentives to companies to increase the amount of liquidity in the market. For example, the NYSE has a program called Supplemental Liquidity Providers (SLPs), which aims to increase competition and liquidity on the exchange by encouraging more trading. Instead of relying on human decision-making and interaction, HFT uses mathematical models and algorithms to make trades. These decisions happen at lightning-fast speeds and can result in large market movements in just milliseconds.
While the speed and efficiency of HFT can be beneficial for traders, it has also raised concerns about market manipulation and destabilization. The lack of human intervention in decision-making poses the risk of decisions being made without considering the broader market and the potential impact on individual investors.
2010 Flash Crash due to HFT
The SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) has been investigating High-Frequency Trading (HFT) for a number of years but has yet to bring any charges against firms or individuals. One well-known example is the 2010 “Flash Crash,” where the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 1000 points in just a few minutes. While HFT was not directly responsible for the crash, many people believe it played a role. The IOSCO report notes that numerous stocks and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) went haywire that day, tumbling by between 5% and 15% before recovering most of their losses. Over 20,000 trades in 300 securities were done at prices as much as 60% away from their values mere moments earlier, with some trades executed at absurd prices, from as low as a penny to as high as $100,000.
The impact of high-frequency trading (HFT) on the forex market is a topic of debate, with some arguing that it improves liquidity and efficiency, while others say it operates like a casino where the house always wins.
Advantages of High Frequency Trading:
1. Speed: One of the main advantages of HFT is the speed at which trades can be executed. By using advanced computer programs to process and analyze large amounts of data, HFT traders can make quick decisions and execute trades in milliseconds. This allows them to take advantage of market opportunities that may only exist for a brief period of time.
2. Liquidity: HFT can also increase liquidity in the markets by providing more buyers and sellers for financial assets. This can lead to more efficient prices and tighter spreads, which can benefit all market participants.
3. Automation: HFT is automated and relies on mathematical models and algorithms to make decisions. This allows the traders to process and analyze large amounts of data quickly and accurately which can help in taking better investment decisions.
HFT can help make prices more accurate by creating more competition among market makers.
Disadvantages of High Frequency Trading:
1. Unfair Advantage in Speed: High-frequency trading (HFT) relies on advanced computer algorithms that allow traders to execute trades at incredibly high speeds. This gives HFT traders an unfair advantage over other investors, as they are able to react to market conditions faster and potentially profit from small price discrepancies that other traders may not have noticed.
2. Amplification Of Market Movements: HFT algorithms may contribute to the amplification of market movements, by triggering automatic buying or selling in response to certain market conditions. This can lead to increased volatility in the markets and potentially amplify downward trends, which can negatively impact other market participants.
3. Susceptibility To Market Manipulation: HFT traders may engage in illegal activities such as spoofing, quote stuffing, wash trading, or painting the tape, which can manipulate the market to their advantage. Such practices can create unfair conditions for other market participants and undermine the integrity of the markets.
4. Risk Of Trading Errors: The high-speed nature of HFT means that trades are executed in milliseconds, which leaves little room for human intervention in case of errors. This can lead to unintended trades and significant losses if the algorithms are not properly programmed or monitored.
5. Impact on Market Infrastructure: The high volume of trades executed by HFT traders can put a strain on market infrastructure, potentially leading to delays or system failures. This can create a “denial of service” scenario that can disrupt trading for other market participants.
6. Challenges For Regulators: With the increasing speed and complexity of HFT, it becomes more difficult for regulators to supervise markets and investigate suspicious trading behavior. Alternative trading venues, such as dark pools, also make it harder for regulators to oversee trading activities.
7. Unequal Access To Information: HFT requires specialized hardware and software that is not accessible to smaller investors, which creates an uneven playing field and limits competition. This can perpetuate a concentration of trading power among a small group of traders and can negatively impact market efficiency.
8. Volatility And Unpredictability: HFT can create volatile conditions in the markets by causing sudden price changes, which can make it difficult for long-term investors to make informed trading decisions.
9. Adverse Impact On Long-Term Investors: The constant volatility in prices caused by HFT traders can make it difficult for long-term investors to achieve their investment objectives and can negatively impact their returns.
10. Unfair Advantage To Traders: HFT gives an unfair advantage to traders who have access to better technology and information, which can perpetuate a concentration of trading power among a small group of traders and can negatively impact market efficiency.
While HFT can bring some benefits, such as increasing liquidity and efficiency in the market, it also poses significant risks, such as market manipulation, the risk of errors, and creating an uneven playing field. Even though HFT has risks, large banks and hedge funds use it a lot. However, it’s hard for retail traders to keep an eye on the market and make sure that everyone can trade in a fair and efficient way.